How St Helena's Slaves Gained their Freedom

The Society held its Annual General Meeting on the 21st May 2011 at the end of which Dr Andy Pearson gave an update on archaeological discoveries at Lemon and Ruperts Valleys and Colin Fox, author of The Bennett Papers spoke about the events leading up to the emancipation, and the eventual freedom, of St Helena’s slaves between 1792-1840.  This was issued in a press release on 1st June 2011.

Colin Fox has given a complete version of his talk to the Society, where it can be read on its web site. The following is a shortened version of that talk (all contact details are listed at end of the article):

In most peoples’ minds as soon as the words ‘Slavery’ or ‘The slave trade’ are spoken, there is an almost automatic association made with Africa and the triangular trade to the Americas. The mind jumps to the pictures of black Africans working under the whip in sugar plantations and in the cotton fields.  However as far as St Helena is concerned, particularly during the period I am speaking of, this picture is entirely false.  Early imports of slaves, certainly in the late 17th century and early 18th century came predominantly from East Africa or Madagascar. As the 18th century progressed and the power and influence of the East India Company spread around the Indian Ocean rim the opportunity to acquire slaves from these areas grew proportionately.

In the early 19th century there were estimated to be a million slaves in India alone. However the condition of slavery was very different to that experienced by slaves in America and the West Indies – far more akin to serfdom than life on a plantation. I believe that slavery on St Helena, with many of its East India Company servants spending their early lives in the east and with the continuing presence of East India ships calling at the island would have resulted in a slave population with a strong Asian presence and with lives more attuned to the east than to the traditional stereotypical condition of the African slave.

The year 1792 marked the introduction of a new set of slave laws to the island.  Although these 42 Articles were predominantly concerned with the treatment of slaves by their owners within the confines of St Helena there was one Article that had more far reaching consequences.

Article 39 said in effect ‘No new slaves to be imported; and every person harbouring or entertaining a new slave to pay fifty pounds, and also the expenses of sending him back to the place to which he belongs.?  This in effect put a stop to the any new slaves being brought to the island and the slave population would only then continue from children born into the condition; a child following the status of the mother.

1807 was of course the year when the momentous bill passed through Parliament that banned the Slave trade throughout the British Empire. As far as St Helena was concerned it had no real impact – the trade to the island having already been abolished 15 years earlier. However, 1807 also marked the date for the formation of the African Institution – an influential group of peers and leading members of society who came together as a pressure group to continue the work of abolishing slavery completely.  The institution published annual reports and one was to have a profound effect on St Helena as I will mention later.

In 1814, Governor Mark Wilks inaugurated the Benevolent Society.  It was set up to rescue from the trammels of ignorance and vice, the children of slaves, free blacks and the poorer classes of the community.  By 1818 two hundred and twenty one slave children and two hundred and seven free blacks were being educated at six schools.   I believe that this represents about 75% of the black children on the island.  In July 1815, sixty one slaves made a claim for freedom based on a rumour that a slave had been improperly brought to the island 40 years previously.  The Lieutenant Governor John Skelton and a committee investigated these claims over a three month period.  49 claims were rejected because the slave arrived on the island previous to the importation of Slaves having been prohibited; eight claimed freedom because that had been to England. These claims were submitted to Board for legal opinion and the outcome is not known; four claims were upheld and the  slaves were freed

Twenty nine of the slaves mentioned their country of origin and this raises the question of the ethnicity of the St Helena slave population at this time.  Two came from Africa (Mozambique), nineteen from different parts of India (including one from Ceylon [Sri Lanka]), seven from Sumatra and one from the West Indies. This is a very small number to be statistically significant but bears some resemblance to the import of slaves into the Cape where roughly equal numbers came from Africa, Madagascar, India and Indonesia (which includes Sumatra).  The names of the slaves give no indication of their country of origin.   India : Bailey, Caesar, Charles (x2), Dick, Dublin, Ellick, Francisco, Franswa, George (x2), John, Juliet, Mercury, Pompey (x2), Tom, Toney;   Sumatra: Cato, Doss, Harry, Hector, Jack, January, London;  Sri Lanka: Tom;  Mozambique: Basto, Toby;  West Indies: March.  Whatever had been their original name they were given new ones by their owners. Giving slaves classical names – Caesar, Mercury, Hector or names of the month – January, March – was typical.

In 1815 Napoleon arrived on the island – This is not important to my story in itself. However, it did mark a change to the Governance of the island and that did have an impact.  In April 1816 Hudson Lowe arrived and despite all the bad press he has received, he seems to have had progressive views regarding slavery: It is said that when he took his family to church, He would lean on his pew door, and he would never sit down till he had everyone - slaves and all - were accommodated with seats. If he saw a barefoot man - a slave without a seat, he would beckon to him and see him seated.?

There is little doubt that he was keen on reform and was helped in this by a change to the membership of the Governing Council on the island. The Consultations mention that proposals to abolish slavery went back to the time of Governor Beatson 1808-1813 but had been vetoed by the other members of the Council who maintained a hard line against any changes. More recently Mr Leech, a strong supporter of the status quo had died and Mr Doveton, a man much influenced by Leech had resigned. Their places had been taken provisionally by Sir George Bingham, Commander of the forces on the Island; a man who held strong antislavery views. The balance of power on the Council swung very decisively towards a reforming agenda. The only remaining member of the old Council was Thomas Brooke, a long time East India Company employee who held more traditionalist views. He was not however against change.

A secret letter (secret as they wanted the Directors views before going public) was sent to the Court in London outlining their thoughts. They made a number of points:   There should be a set a date for the start the process;  That the slaves would have to work for their owners for a fixed number of years before being emancipated to defray the cost of their upbringing;  They expressed their deep concern over the present generation of slaves not having their minds prepared for freedom and they were worried that slaves would lose all restraint if there was a general emancipation. Therefore this should be avoided;  That it should be mandatory for young slaves to receive religious and moral instruction so that they would be ready for freedom when they reached a suitable age.  They then went on to make three specific proposals.  First, all slaves born after 31st Dec 1818 be free but apprenticed to their master until they were 18 years (16 for girls); second that owners could emancipate their slaves at any time and be exempt for the 37th article of the slaves laws (£160 surety payment); third, aged and infirm slaves would be looked after by the Company.  These latter two proposals would act as a counterweight to the financial loss the owners would suffer by freeing the children because firstly they would be relieved of the requirement to look after their old and infirm slaves and secondly they could free their slaves without putting up a £160 bond to cover any cost of care if the freed slave became incapacitated.

By good fortune, just after the letter was sent, the 11th report of African Institution fell into Governor’s hands. In it there was a report concerning the Governor of Ceylon – Sir Alexander Johnston.  For many years, Sir Alexander had urged the Dutch inhabitants to adopt some means for the gradual, but effectual abolition of domestic slavery. In consequence of his suggestion the proprietors of domestic slaves came to a resolution, that all children born of their slaves after the 13th of August 1816', should be free thereby putting an end to domestic slavery, which had prevailed in Ceylon for three centuries.  Lowe must have rubbed his hands with glee. This was a huge lever – surely the good English Christian people of St Helena would not like to be outdone by the Dutch. Without waiting for a response from the Directors he convened a meeting of slave owners. What he said to them is not known but the outcome was just as he hoped. He wrote again to the Directors: “ . . we have the honour to inform you of the unanimous voice of the inhabitants for preventing the perpetuity of slavery on this island”.  He further requested the construction of “a house of correction” and a “hospital for Black and other indigent persons”

It was not until the dynamic General Sir Alexander Walker arrived in 1823 that further steps were taken on the road to the amelioration and abolishment of slavery.  In 1824 he introduced the treadmill for minor misdemeanours to replace the lash.  Interestingly during this year, six slaves took their owners to Court – mostly for ill treatment. The owners were admonished and fined a few shillings - no treadmill for them.  In 1825 General Walker addressed the Horticultural and Agricultural Society and invited them to consider ways and means of abolishing slavery. The idea of the company supporting the aged and infirm seemed to have gone out of the window so the owners were soon going to have the face a situation when the free born children would end their apprenticeships and become truly free and the older slaves would be come an increasing burden on the owners. Slave families would be split into ‘them and us’ with jealousies bound to occur and there would be general discontent all round and life and the universe would go to pot.  These weren’t his actual words but this was the message.

Better perhaps to ask the Company to put up the money as a loan to the slaves so that they could purchase their freedom. The owners would have cash in hand to pay wages to the newly free. The newly free would have to work to pay off their loan so indolence would not be a problem. Also, but not stated, the older the slaves got the less their value so if the idea was approved then better do this sooner rather than later.  Most everyone thought this was a good idea – so long as they could value their own slaves. This gleeful idea was turned down flat – it would have to be via a so-called disinterested committee composed of slave owners and Company servants (who of course were also slave owners). They all had to swear on oath that they would act impartially and in Sep 1827 the valuation of the slaves was started. The idea was that the valuation list would be available to everyone and both the owners would know what money they would get and the slaves, what their values were and how much they would have to pay back.

There was a major drawback of course. The best slaves – the ones that were in their prime, worked hard, behaved themselves and were generally good eggs were going to valued higher and would have to pay back the most money. The less able, the idle, incompetent and generally bad lots would be valued least and would have to pay back less money. Hardly fair. The only way out of this conundrum was to class the slaves as meritorious, class 1, class 2 etc. The real bad lots would not be valued or classed at all and would be at the end of the queue for emancipation.

The slaves would not be all freed at once – the process would be by lot and take five years and there would be a formula devised so that the highest class of slave would have a better chance of being freed early. The formula/lottery process would also ensure that a particular owner would not find that by luck he lost all his best slaves in any one draw but there would be a cross section across the classes each year. The draw would be biased in favour of the higher classed slave and this was intended to be an incentive for the lower classed ones to get off their backsides. If they moved up to a higher class they would get a better chance of an early freedom.

The valuation took place for all 890 slaves present on the island. This document exists  and I have transcribed it and it is now available to members on our web site.  It is possible to analyse this data in many ways. I’ve prepared a few slides to show the kind of information that can be obtained from it but it would take another talk to do justice to it. The document states the name of both slave and owner, the slaves age and occupation and some personal details – character, number of children, whether they are married or cohabiting

Governor Walker made the point in 1827 that “The labourers here may be divided into 3 classes, viz -- Free Labourers, Chinese, and Slaves. It has been proved, by the experience of all ages and all countries, that the labour of free men is cheaper than that performed by slaves; the latter have no other interest but to eat as much, and to labour as little as possible.”  He then went on to show that by employing workers under contract was far cheaper than using forced labour. They had tried this out in Trinidad telling the slaves that if they finished a particular job early then they could have the rest of the day off. On St Helena, a road repair job cost £36 10s by contract, by using Chinese workmen it cost £109 2s 6d – about three times as much!  Although the Chinese were classed as indentured labourers, in practical terms they had lives little better than slaves.

By July 1831 one hundred and twenty four slaves had been emancipated at a loan cost of £5550 of which £1204 had been repaid. All seemed to be going to plan.  It was still slow progress and in 1831 81 slave owners sent the Directors a letter stating calling for time taken for the emancipation of slaves to be reduced from five to three years, without effect.  In 1833 a further slave abolition act passed through Parliament. This banned slavery after 1st August 1834. After that date any slave more than 6 years old would become an apprentice labourer. However, the Territories in the Possession of the East India Company including Ceylon and Saint Helena were exempted from this law.  Why? Well the fact was that many of the Indian soldiers in the Company owned slaves. It was realised that if all these slaves were all set free, the Indian Army would be in ruins. Presumably St Helena and Ceylon were included for the sake of equivalence

There is no happy ending to this story.  In 1834, the sovereignty of St Helena was taken over by the crown. The result of this change was dire to everyone on the island; many East India Company employees lost their jobs, pensions were much reduced, money was short. The economy went into free fall, food prices rocketed and there was doom and gloom all round. For those at the bottom of the social scale, the ex-slaves with loans to pay off but little prospect of work, the situation was desperate.
There had been concerns by the white population throughout the 1820s of the effects of emancipation but improvements in education, apprenticeships, and moral instruction of the upcoming generation had allayed many of these fears. To the majority, Slave owning had become an embarrassment – even repugnant. It is therefore sad that all the enthusiasm, hope and optimism of the past years came to such a depressing end.

In Sep 1836 Captain George Den Taffe, the Reporter of Emancipation, wrote to the Treasury:  “Their hardships and privations are felt by all the lower classes; the emancipated slave has the vexation of being burthened with debt which a long life of labour would not enable him to pay, and however frugal and industrious, any little savings he may be enabled to affect (instead of benefiting himself and his family) must be appropriated to the payment of that debt. Thus the strongest incitement to industry (the hope of acquiring a little property, or of laying by something for his support in the decline of life, and for the benefit of his family hereafter) is at once removed and he is left without a prospect of ever emerging from the abject state in which this nominal emancipation found him.”

After some further correspondence, in Dec 1839 a final statement was prepared. In all £31,645:2s:0d had been loaned, £2,955:8s:d1 had been repaid, £28,694:13s.1d1 was left unpaid. It was all written off.

There was however one bright outcome. In the St Helena government’s 1839 blue book, the column headers for “coloured’ and ‘white” population were struck through. There were no longer racially divided people on the island. It just headed the column ‘Population’.

Below is a full list of the slaves in 1827, together with the names of slave owners.  Brackets in this list indicate name changes or variants.  To discover the full information about any individual slave, go to the Friends of St Helena web page where all the details are available to members of the society

Full List of Slaves:

Allen, Nancy {1832 Ann}
Alley, George
Alley, Jacob
Alley, Nancy
Allins, Tom
Ally, Frank
Ally, Samuel
Alvarez, Francis
Alvarez, Martha
Andrew, James
Andrews, William
Anthony, Jack
Anthony(Antony), James
Anthony(Antony), Juliet
Antony, David
Arms, John
Arthur, Clara
Arthur, John
Arthur, William
Ashton, David
August, David
August, Harry
August, {1833 Yon} Jacob
August, John
August, John
August, Nancy
August, Ruth [nee Yon]
August, Samuel
Augustus, Caesar
Augustus, Charles
Augustus, David
Augustus, Henry
Augustus, Jane
Augustus, Mary
Augustus, Sally
Augustus, Stephen
Bacchus, Joseph
Bacchus, Mary
Bagley, Edward
Bagley, James
Bagley, John
Bagley, Margaret
Bagley, Mary
Bagley, Patty (Martha)
Bagley, Robert
Bagley, Sarah
Bagley, William
Bagley, William
Baird, {1833 Beard} Joseph
Baird, {1833 Beard} Patty
Bally, John
Barnes, Robert
Bastino, Harry
Batty, Matilda
Beard, Martha
Beatie(Dugan), Jane
Beatie, Maria
Bell, Charles
Ben, Cornelius {1834 poss. George, Cornelius}
Ben, Benjamin
Ben, Elizabeth
Ben, Ellen
Ben, Fanny{1832}
Ben, George
Ben, Hannah
Ben, Ishmael
Ben, Mary
Ben, Priscilla
Ben, Robert
Ben, Scipio
Benjamin, Hagar
Benjamin, Jacob
Benjamin, Nancy
Benjamin, Peggy
Bennett, Fanny
Biffin(Buffin), Mary
Birch, Eliza
Bland, Robert
Boom(Broom), Charlotte
Boom(Broom), Eliza
Boom(Broom), Mary
Booms, George
Booth, Joshua
Bowers, Christian
Bowers, Edward
Bowers, Edward
Bowers, Jacob
Bowers, John
Bowers, John Edward
Bowers, Juliana
Bowers, Mary
Bowers, Nancy
Bowers, Robert
Bowers, Samuel
Bowers, Samuel Edward
Bowers, Susanna
Bowers, William
Bowers, William
Breman, Henry
Breman, {1833 Brennan} John
Brook, Samuel
Brown, James
Bruce, Sarah
Burroughs(Borough)), John
Bustino(Bastino), Ally {1834 Bastino, George Alley}
Bustino(Bastino), Ally
Bustino(Bastino), Charles
Bustino(Bastino), James Ally
Caesar, Caroline
Caesar, Christian {1832 Christopher}
Caesar, Finny
Caesar, Flora
Caesar, George
Caesar, John
Caesar, Margaret
Caesar, Mary
Caesar, Mary
Caesar, Massie
Caesar, Michael
Caesar, Sarah
Caesar, William
Casar(Caesar), Augustus
Casar(Caesar), Benjamin
Casar, {T1 4248 Caesar}Celia
Casar, {T1 4248 Caesar} Samuel
Cato, Abigail
Cato, Eleanor (Ellena)
Cato, Jack
Cato, Jacob
Cato, Joseph {1832 poss. Kato, James}
Cato, Joseph
Cato, Margaret
Cato, Mary
Cato, Mary
Cato, Mary
Cato, Matilda
Cato, Molly
Cato, Susan
Caton {Katon or 1832 Clayton}, William
Chambers, Dolly
Chambers, Sarah
Chambers, William
Charles, Arthur
Charles, David
Charters(Chatos), John
Cheeks, George
Chintry(Chentry), David
Christopher, George
Christopher, Henry
Christopher, Joseph
Clark, Henry
Clark, Isaac
Coates(Coote), Susan
Cockrane, Charles
Coerbeck, George
Collins, Christopher
Corker, James
Corker, John
Corker, Joseph
Corker, Margaret
Corker, Mary
Corker, Nancy
Corker, Sarah
Corker, Susan
Coxwell, James
Craig, George
Croee(Crowey), Ann
Crop, Richard
Crop, Rose
Crop, Tom
Crowey {1832Croee}, Charles
Crowey, {1833 Croe} Joseph
David, Authy (Antony
David, Charles
David, Charles
David, George
David, James
David, John
David, Mary
David, Michael
David, Samuel
David, Sophia
David, Stephen
Davids, James
David(s), Sally
Davis, Thomas
Devine, Mary
Devine, Sarah
Devy, Patty
Diamond, Sarah
Dick, James
Dick, Samuel
Diggins, Mary
Doe, James
Donaut, Eliza
Donaut, Ernest
Donaut, Frederick
Donaut, {1834 Donaught} Henry
Donaught, Nancy
Dublin, Lucy {1832}
Easthope, Elizabeth
Easthope, Henry
Eddy, Lucy
Eddy, Maria
Edwards, Sarah
Ellick {was Jacobs}, Jane
Ellick, Jacob
Ellick, Samuel
Euley, John
Ewell, Sukey
Fair, William
Finham, Elizabeth
Fortune {1833} Leah
Fortune, Sarah
Fowler, Mary
Francis, Charles
Francis, Finney
Francis, George
Francis, George
Francis, Henry
Francis, James
Francis, John
Francis, John
Francis, John
Francis, Maria
Francis, Peggy (Margaret)
Francis, Pricilla
Francis, Samuel
Francis, Sophia
Francis, Susan
Francis, William
Frank, Henry
Frank, Massie
Frank, Sarah
Frank, Stephen
George, Allan (Allen)
George, Augustus
George, Benj
George, Benj
George, Betty
George, Celia
George, Charles
George, Charles
George, Cornelius
George, David
George, Diana
George, Dolly
George, Fanny
George, Francis
George, Francis
George, George
George, Harry
George, Jacob
George, Jacob
George, Jacob
George, Jacob
George, James
George(tabby cat), James
George, Jane
George, John
George, John
George, Louisa
George, Lucy
George, Martha
George, Martha
George, Mary
George, Mary
George, May
George, Nancy
George, Nancy
George, Peggy
George, Richard
George, Richard
George, Richard M
George, Ruth
George, Sally (Sarah)
George, Sarah
George, Susan (Sukey)
Gilderoy, Charles
Grace, Margaret
Grace, Sarah
Greenland, Fanny
Grewer, Thomas
Griffon, John
Hamlet, William
Hardy, William
Harrigo, Mary
Harry, Benjamin
Harry, David
Harry, Jack
Harry, James
Hawkins, Sophia
Hawkins, George
Hector, Alfred
Hector, Emma
Hector, Henry
Henry, Clara
Henry, Francis
Henry, John
Henry, Nancy
Henry, Philip
Henry, Polly
Henry, William
Hercules, Charles
Hercules, Sarah
Hercules, William
Higgins, Thomas
Hillman, Charlotte
Hodson, Christopher
Holmes, Robert
Howlett, George
Hudson(Hodson), Charles
Hudson(Hodson), Nancy (Ann)
Hughes, Eliza
Huskins, Louisa
Hyam, Jack
Hygate, Charles
Hygate, Jane
Hygate, Sarah
Hygate, Susan
Hygate {1832 Highgate}, Susanna
Hygate, William
Isaac, Lucy
Isaac(Isaacke), Maria
Isaac(Isaacke), Richard
Jack, Caesar
Jacob, Benjamin
Jacob, Peggy
Jacobs, Ally
Jacobs, Jane
Jacobs, Lucy
Jacobs, Patty
Jacobs, Sarah
Jacobs, Sukey
James, Catherine
James, Edward
James, Ella
James {1833 Anthony}, Ellen
James, Emilia
James, Fanny
James, George
James, George
James, Henry
James, {1833 Jacob}
James, Joseph
James, Margaret
James, Margaret
James, Margaret
James, Maria
James, Martha
James, Mary
James, Sarah
James, Thomas
James, William
Jameson, Joshua
Jane, Mary
January, Fanny
January, Fanny
January, John
January, Joseph
Jefferson, Benjamin
Job, Joseph
Job, Joseph {1832}
Joe, David
Joe, Mary
John, Ally
John, Harry
John, Jack
John, James
John, Sarah
John, William
Jonas, Frank {T1 4248 Francis}
Jones, Harry {1833 Henry}
Jones, Robert
Jones, Thomas
Jones, William
Joseph, Hamlet
Julio, Ann
June, {1833}David
June, Henry
June, James
June {1833 Nanny}
Junias, Mary
Kato, James
Kelly, Sophia
Kennedy, Stephen
King, John
Knipe, Benjamin
Knipe, David
Knipe, Henry
Knipe, John
Knipe, Lucy
Knipe, Margaret
Knipe, Margaret
Knipe, Molly {1832 Margaret}
Knipe, Nelly
Knipe, Sophia
Knipe, Sukey (Lucy){1833 Susan}
Knipe, William
Knipe, William
Lastly, William
Lawrence, Eliza
Lawrence, James
Lawrence, James
Lawrence, Jane
Lawrence, Mary
Lawrence, Richard
Lawrence, Richard
Lawrence, Thomas
Leach, Nancy
Legg, Nancy {1834 Anne}
Leo, Betty
Leo, George
Leo, Harry
Leo, James
Leo, John
Leo, John
Leo, Kitty
Leo, Lucy
Leo, Margaret
Leo, Margaret
Leo, Maria
Leo, Maria
Leo, Robert
Leo, Sophia
Leo, Sophia
Leo, Susan
Leo, William
Livermore, James
London, David
London, James
London, Susan
London, William
Lyons, Charles
Lyons(Lions), James
Maggett, Charles
Maggett, David
Maggett(Braids Harry), Henry
Maggett, Mary
Maggett, William
Maggott, Francis
Maggott, George
Maggott, George
Maggott, Jacob
Maggott, Jane
Maggott, {1833 Maggett} John
Maggott, Maria
Maggott, Martha {1833 Ma}
Maggott, Robert
Maggott, Sarah
Manning, Samuel
Manuel, Betty (Elizabeth)
Manuel, Charles
Manuel, David
Manuel, Elizabeth
Manuel, James
Manuel, Jane
Manuel, Maria
March, Diana (Hannah)
March, Flora
March, Francis
March, George
March, George
March, James
March, Martha
March, Michael
March, Richard
Martha, Mary Ann
Mason, James
Mason, John
Mason, Samuel
Matchel,{1833 Matchett} Joseph
Matchel, Rose
Matthews, William
May, Ellen
May(Mead’s Frank), Francis
May, Robert
McMahon, William
Mellish, Mary
Mercury, Charles
Mercury, Harry
Mercury, Henry
Mercury, John
Mercury, Michael
Mercury, Polly
Mercury, Robert
Michael, William
Mittens, Margaret
Mittens, Samuel
Moyce, Betty
Moyce, Edward
Moyce(Moyre), Flora
Moyce, Henry
Moyce, James
Moyce, John
Moyce, Mary
Moyce, William
Nairn[e], Bridget
 Nairne, John {1832}
Neptune, James
Newberry, Maria
Nicholas(Nicholes), John
O’Mera, Patty
O’Neale, Maria
Odein, Sophia
Oliver, Mary
Oliver, Nelly
Pelaw, George
Peter, David
Peter, Hamlet
Peter, Hamlet
Peter, Jacob
Peter, Jacob
Peter, Michael
Peter, Samuel
Peter, Sarah
Peter, Sarah
Peter, Susan
Peter, Tilla
Phil, Elizabeth
Phil(Phill), Maria
Phil, Robert
Phil(Phill), Sally
Philip, Francis
Philip(Phillip), John
Phill, James
Phill, William
Phillip, Richard
Phillips, James
Phillips, John
Pig, Joe
Pluke, Frederick
Pompey, Francis
Pompey, George
Pompey, James Francis
Pompey, John
Pompey, John
Pompey, Lucy
Pompey, Margaret
Pompey, Mary (Molly)
Pompey, Nelly
Pompey, Richard
Pompey, Tom {1832}
Porchman, Fanny
Porchman, William
Price, Abraham
Pugh(Peugh), William
Raynam, John {1832}
Raynam, Molly
Reade, Thomas
Reynolds, Ellen
Reynolds, Sally
Reynolds, William
Rich, Elizabeth {1834 Esther}
Rich, James
Rich, William
Richards, Charlotte
Richards, Margaret
Richards, Sarah
Richards, Sarah
Richards, Sawney
Richards {1834} Sophia
Richards, Thomas
Richards, William
Richards, William
Richardson, Elizabeth
Riley, Charles
Riley, Margaret
Riley, Mary
Rippon, Francis
Rippon, John
Rippon, Margaret
Rippon, Margaret
Rippon, Nelly
Rippon, Peter
Rock, Charles
Rock, John (Jack)
Roger, Stephen
Ross, Nancy
Rushfords, Elizabeth
Russell, Charlotte
Russell, James
Russell, Richard
Russell, Thomas
Sam, Benjamin
Sam, Charlotte
Sam, Emma
Sam, Henry
Sam, Jacob
Sam, Margaret
Sam, Mary
Sam, Mary
Sam, Melinda
Sam, Nanny (Nancy)
Sam, Patty
Sam, Richard
Sam, Sarah
Sam, Thomas
Samuel, Augustus
Samuel, Job
Sawney, George
Sawney, Mary
Sawney, Patty (Margaret)
Sawney, Peggy
Scott, Charles
Scott, Elizabeth
Scott, Jane
Scott, John
Scott, William
Seal, Masie
Seale, Alonzo
Seale, Charles
Seale, Sophia
Shipbeck, Peggy
Sifton, Benj
Sifton, James
Silvester, Elizabeth
Silvester, George
Silvester, Jane
Silvester, {1834 Sylvester} John
Silvester, Stephen
Simon, Diana
Simon, Samuel
Sims, Hester
Small, John
Smith, Charles
Smith, Edward
Smith, Emma
Smith, Lucy
Smith, Mary
Smith, William
Stephen, Henry
Stephen, Jack {1832 John Stevens}
Stephen(Steven), Jacob
Stephen, {1834 Stevens} James
Stephen, {1834} James
Stephen, Lucy {1832}
Stephen, Martha
Stephens,{1833 Stevens} Charles
Stephens, {T1 4248 Stevens} Charles
Stephens, Jack (or John)
Stephens, Jacob
Stephen(s), John
Stephens, Margaret
Stephens, Roger
Stephens(Stevens), Sarah
Stevens, Clara (poss nee Clara Arthur}
{1833 Stevens}, Fanny
Stevens, George
Stevens, Margaret
Stevens(Stephens), Mary
Stevens, Michael
Stevens(Stephens), Sarah
Stevens, Stephen
Stevens, Thomas
Stevens(Stephens), William
Sunday, Patty
Syer, Jane
Syer, Rebecca
Talbert(Torbett), James
Theed, Maria (Mary)
Thomas, Benjamin
Thomas, Betty Watts
Thomas {1834} Cato
Thomas, Clara
Thomas, David
Thomas, Diana
Thomas, Elizabeth
Thomas, Henry
Thomas, John
Thomas, John
Thomas, Juliet
Thomas, Louisa
Thomas, {1834} Lucy
Thomas, Martha
Thomas, Mary
Thomas, Mary Ann
Thomas, Nancy
Thomas, Peggy (Margaret)
Thomas, {1834} Rebecca
Thomas, Sarah
Thomas, Susan
Thomas, Walter
Thomas, William
Thompson, Henry {poss Harry Tom}
Thompson, James
Thompson, Martha
Thorn, Charlotte
Tim, Elizabeth
Tim, Fanny
Tim, Henry
Tim, William
Toe, Tom
Toe, Tom  jnr.
Tom, Harry
Tom, Patty
Toney, Billy
Top, Diana
Top, {1834 Topp} Henry
Top(Topp), Thomas
Tuck, James {1832}
Twyham, Charles
Twynam, Emma
Twynam, Francis
Twynham, David
Varney, Edward
Varney, Sally
Wade, Charles
Wade, Thomas
Wade, William
Wallace, Robert
Wallace, William
Watson, Eliza
Watson, Henry
Watson, John
Watson, Richard
Watson, William
Whaley, Jacob
Whaley, James
Whaley, Thomas
White, John
William, James (Tippoo) {1832}
William, John
William, Margaret
Williams, Eddy
Williams, Flora
Williams, George
Williams, James
Williams, James
Williams, James
Williams, Jane
Williams, Kitty {1833 Catherine}
Williams, Lucy
Williams, Richard
Williams, Sarah
Williams, Sarah
Williams, William
Williams, William
Williams, William
Willis, John
Wood, Charles {1832}
Worcester(Worster), Charlotte
Worcester(Worster), Nancy {T1 4248 Ann}
Worcester(Worster), William
Yon, Augustus
Yon, Billy
Yon, Charles
Yon, Henry
Yon, Hygale
Yon, Jacob – see under August, Jacob
Yon, James
Yon, John
Yon, John
Yon, Michael
Yon, Molly
Yon, Peggy
Yon, Ruth – see under August, Ruth
Yon, Samuel
Yon, Sarah
Yon(August), Susan
Yon, Thomas
Yon, Thomas
Yon, William
Yon(August), William
Youds, Henry (Harry)
Young, Elizabeth
Young, Hannah
Young, Sally
Young, Sarah

Additionally, here is a list of nearly 200 slave owners:

Full List of Slave Owners

Alesworthy, Mrs
Alexander, F.
Alexander, Frederick
Alexander, Mr G. W.
Alexander, Mr H.
Alexander, Mr Samuel Alexander
Alexander, Mrs M.
Bagley, Mr John
Bagley, Mr O. R.
Bagley, Mr Richard
Barker, Mr
Barnes, Mrs M.
Bayes, Mr John
Bazett, Mrs
Beale, Captain
Beale, Miss
Beale, Mr A.
Bennett, Captain
Blake, Mr
Blenkins, Mr
Boys, Reverend R.
Brabazon, Mr
Broadway, Captain
Broadway, Mrs
Brooke, Mr
Bruce, Mr
Burnham, Mr John
Burnham, Mr S.
Burnie, W&J of London
Carolans, Sergeant
Carr, Mr T.
Chamberlain, Mr W.
Charlette, Mr
Clements, Mr
Cole, Captain H.
Cole, Miss E.
Cole, Miss S.
Connolly, Drum Major
Cruickshank, Mr
Cruickshank, Mrs
Cruickshanks, Mrs
Darling, Mr
De Fountain, Mr J.
De Fountain, Mr John
De Fountain, Mrs E.
Desfountain, Mr C.
Desfountain, Mrs E 
Dickson, James
Doverton, G.
Doveton, Sir W. W.
Dring, Mr
Dunn, Dr J. C.
Eddlestone, Mr
Eyre, Mr
Fowler, Mr E.
Gideon, Mr
Greentree, Mr
Gunnell, Mr
Gurling, Mrs
Hamilton, Mr D.
Harper, Mrs
Hayes, Mrs Anne
Hayes, R.
Haymes, Mrs
Hayward, Mrs
Hodson, Colonel
Hodson, Mrs A.
Isaacke, Mr A.
Isaacke, Mr Alfred
James, George
Janisch, Mr
Julio, Mr R.
Julio, Mr William
Kay, Dr
Kay, Henry
Kay, Miss C.
Kay, Mr Henry
Kay, Mrs E.
Kennedy, Lieutenant William
Knipe Senior, Mr John
Knipe, Captain
Knipe, J. B. (children of)
Knipe, Mr J. B.
Knipe, Mr T. B.
Knipe, Mr W. B. B.
Knipe, Mrs Henry
Knipe, Mrs Mary
Lambe, Mrs A. Widow
Lambe, Mrs M.
Lambe, Mrs Matilda
Le Breton, Mrs
Leech, Mrs Richard
Legg Senior, Mr
Legg, Mr S.
Leicester, Mrs
Lester, Mrs
Lorimer, Dr
Lower Tavern Proprietor of
Marrowbeck, Mr
Mason, Captain
Mason, Colonel
Mason, Ensign John
Mason, Lieutenant William
Mason, Miss
Mason, Mr Ben
Mason, Mr James
Mason, Mrs R. P. Widow
Meade, Mr
Metcalfe, Mr J.
Moss, Mr
Mullhall, Mr
Noqueda[h], Mrs E.
O'Connor, Captain
O'Connor, Lieutenant
Oswald, Mr
Patterson, Mr C.
Price, Dr
Prince, Mr
Pritchard, Lieutenant James
Pritchard, Major D. K.
Pritchard, Major H. H.
Pritchard, Mr S.
Pritchard, Mrs E.
Pritchard, Mrs S.
Rich, Mr Jacob
Rich, Mr John
Roake, John
Roakes, Mr Edward
Robinson, Mr J.
Rofe, Mrs
Sampson, Captain
Sampson, Major (1833)
Sampson. Lieutenant John
Scott Junior, Mr R.
Scott Senior, Mr R.
Scott, Mr Charles
Scott, Mr John
Seale Junior, Mr W.
Seale Junior, Mr William
Seale, Major
Seale, Mr H. F.
Seale, Mr R. F.
Seale, Mr William Henry
Shortis, Captain
Smith, Colonel
Smith, Lieutenant A.
Smith, Mrs A.
Smith, Mrs Mary
Solomon, Mr B.
Solomon, Mr S.
Statham, Captain
Stewart, Mrs
Stewart, Mrs S.
Thomas, Leech, Trustees
Thorn, Captain
Tim, Mr Harry
Torbett, Captain
Torbett, Mr R.
Torbett, Mr Richard
Torbett, Mrs M Widow
Tracy Senior, Mr
Tracy, Mr C.
Watson, Dr
Weston, Mr
Wills, Mr R.
Wright, Colonel
Wright, Mr Robert
Youd, Mr
Young, Jonathon
Young, Lieutenant S.
Young, Miss P.
Young, Mr Am-t
Young, Mr John

All enquiries regarding membership of Friends of St Helena should be emailed to the Subscription Secretary

Full membership details can be read on the Membership Page of our web site